Beverly Paigen and colleagues first characterized atherosclerosis development in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a hybrid atherogenic diet. The hybrid diet was created by mixing a natural ingredient mouse diet in a 3:1 ratio with a concentrated purified diet (containing 5% cholesterol and 2% sodium cholate; referred to as Thomas-Hartroft diet). The resulting mixture recreated in TD.88051/TD.90221 (same formula) contains ~15.8% fat, 1.25% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate. This group later compared the hybrid atherogenic diet approach to the more modern “western” purified atherogenic diet with added cholesterol and cholate and found that the hybrid atherogenic diet induced more gallstones and liver damage. Hybrid diets contain a variety of unrefined ingredients that may modify lipid metabolism and atherogenesis and do not allow for precise control of ingredients and nutrients for the study of chronic diseases. Although more refined diets have been developed, hybrid atherogenic diets are still popular for inducing mild atherosclerosis and gallstones in wild type mice and rats. Contact us for more information, modifications, or possible control diets.
Examples of hybrid high-fat diets with added cholesterol and cholate source*:
- TD.88051 and TD.90221 (same formula) are Teklad product codes for hybrid atherogenic diets
Example of hybrid high-fat diet with added cholesterol (without cholate source):
Induce hypercholesterolemia and mild atherosclerosis (foam cells, fatty streaks) primarily in wild type mice and rats.
Will not promote obesity.
Also used for lithogenic (gallstone) rodent studies.
Key dietary features:
- 75% rodent breeder diet; 25% purified ingredients
- High fat (~15% by weight; 37% kcal from fat)
- Saturated fatty acids (SFA >45% of total fatty acids)
- Cholesterol (1.25%)
- Cholate source (0.5%)*
- Nishina, P.M., J. Verstuyft, and B. Paigen, Synthetic low and high fat diets for the study of atherosclerosis in the mouse. J Lipid Res, 1990. 31(5): p. 859-69.
Clee, S.M., et al., Plasma and vessel wall lipoprotein lipase have different roles in atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res, 2000. 41(4): p. 521-31.
George, J., et al., Enhanced fatty streak formation in C57BL/6J mice by immunization with heat shock protein-65. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 1999. 19(3): p. 505-10.
Miyake, J.H., et al., Transgenic expression of cholesterol-7-alpha-hydroxylase prevents atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2002. 22(1): p. 121-6.
Paigen, B., et al., Quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic lesions in mice. Atherosclerosis, 1987. 68(3): p. 231-40.
Schreyer, S.A., D.L. Wilson, and R.C. LeBoeuf, C57BL/6 mice fed high fat diets as models for diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 1998. 136(1): p. 17-24.
Vergnes, L., et al., Cholesterol and cholate components of an atherogenic diet induce distinct stages of hepatic inflammatory gene expression. J Biol Chem, 2003. 278(44): p. 42774-84.
*Sodium cholate or cholic acid aid cholesterol and fat absorption and reduce cholesterol disposal via bile acid synthesis. However, if including a cholate source is not desired for your research, diets without cholate are available. See TD.96121 for a purified diet and TD.94059 for a hybrid diet. Contact us for additional options.