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Surgical technical sheets and FAQs

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Envigo currently offers vascular and non-vascular catheterizations in rats, soft tissue procedures in rats, mice and hamsters, and implantation of various devices in rats and mice. Envigo commonly develops procedures specific to client requests. Please contact Veterinary Sciences, Research & Support, for a rodent surgical service that is currently unlisted.

Our standard catheter material is polyurethane. However, other catheter materials such as polyethelene, silicone or Culex™ catheters are available upon request.

Envigo's standard exteriorization is a subcutaneous pouch with a fixed exteriorization. At the exteriorization point, located between the scapula on the dorsal surface of the rat, all catheters are 3.5 french and can be accessed with a 22 or 23 gauge blunt tip needle. Modifications to the standard exteriorization include the use of a jacket, harness, PinPort™, or button.

Envigo's standard locking solution is sterile Heparin/Glycerol, 500 IU/mL supplied by SAI Infusion Technologies. Optional locking solutions, such as heparinized saline, heparinized dextrose and taurolidine citrate are available upon request.

Envigo currently operates three barrier dedicated surgical units. These facilities are located in Indianapolis, IN, Livermore, CA, and Dublin, VA. Surgically-modified immunodeficient rodent models are available from Madison, WI, and Indianapolis, IN.

Envigo's standard anesthetic protocol utilizes an intraperitoneal injection of a ketamine/xylazine cocktail. Inhalant isoflurane is available as an optional anesthetic. There is no additional charge for either type of anesthetic.

Yes. Animals undergoing survival surgery receive post-operative analgesia to further ensure their humane and ethical care. Envigo’s standard analgesic is ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID), administered via subcutaneous injection. Alternative analgesics may be used based upon Client project requirements. Please specify this special request at the time of ordering.

The rounded-tip catheter offers reduced maintenance requirements, with a recommended flushing interval of five-seven days and long-term patency benefits. This catheter is Envigo’s standard for the jugular vein, femoral vein, portal vein (via superior mesenteric vein), carotid artery, and femoral artery.

Each catheter is identified with a silk screened silicone sleeve. The silicone sleeve indicates with letters which type of catheter is inserted; e.g. “RJVC” indicates a “right jugular vein catheter.” This sleeve should remain on the catheter. However, the sleeve can be removed by lubricating the area and sliding the sleeve off the end of the catheter. Additionally, a venous catheter will have a blue suture point located between the animal's shoulder blades, and an arterial catheter will have a red suture point located between the animal's shoulder blades.

A common cause of partial patency of a catheter (the ability to infuse but not aspirate) is the formation of fibrin into a sheath, or sleeve, over the implanted catheter tip. Additionally, when introduced into the catheter, select micro-organisms form biofilms on the catheter and can significantly decrease the ability to withdraw blood and/or infuse fluids. Use of a disinfectant and sterile supplies when flushing catheters decreases pathogenic micro-organism numbers and promotes completely patent catheters.

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